Pebble and lego to test ACME with NixOS

When configuring a new service I want to run on NixOS, I often use nixos-shell to quickly standup a temporary VM locally with my new configuration. When this configuration is a service, I often want to ensure I have TLS configured properly, including the correct permissions on the certificate and key files managed by lego.

However, I don’t neccessarily want to send unacceptable amounts of traffic to production ACME servers, or deal with proper validation with their staging services. Fortunately, we can configure the NixOS VM to start a testing ACME server, Pebble, and configure Lego to use it.


Pebble is a small, single-binary ACME server intended for testing. Keys and certificates are randomnized between calls, but this is fine for an emphermial VM.

First, we’ll want to configure Pebble to start, which we can do with the systemd.service NixOS option. I use the toJSON builtin function to create a JSON configuration file for Pebble from a Nix attribute set. I also reference the default certificate and key from the source package, as they are not yet copied to the output package.

{ pkgs }:

  pebbleConfig = pkgs.writeText "pebble.json" (builtins.toJSON {
    pebble = {
      listenAddress = "";
      managementListenAddress = "";
      certificate = "${pkgs.pebble.src}/test/certs/localhost/cert.pem";
      privateKey = "${pkgs.pebble.src}/test/certs/localhost/key.pem";
      httpPort = 5002;
      tlsPort = 5001;
      ocspResponderURL = "";
      externalAccountBindingRequired = false;
in { = {
    description = "Pebble ACME Test Server";
    after = [ "" ];
    wantedBy = [ "" ];
    serviceConfig = {
      Environment = [ "PEBBLE_VA_NOSLEEP=1" "PEBBLE_VA_ALWAYS_VALID=1" ];
      ExecStart = "${pkgs.pebble}/bin/pebble -config ${pebbleConfig}";
      DynamicUser = true;

You can modify some behavior of Pebble through environment variables. I set two for better behavior in a development VM:

  • PEBBLE_VA_NOSLEEP disables any artifical sleeps in the issuance path, as we’re not interested in testing lego’s validationg polling.
  • PEBBLE_VA_ALWAYS_VALID disables all validation methods, and assumes domains have already been successfully validated.

One warning from the Pebble documentation bares repeating here:

Pebble is NOT INTENDED FOR PRODUCTION USE. Pebble is for testing only.


lego is a widely used ACME client that implements all of the ACME challenges, bindings for major DNS providers, and support for bundling certificates. It’s used as the implementation to NixOS’s security.acme options. This means most of the configuration is already done for us.

  security.acme = {
    server = "https://localhost:14000/dir";
    acceptTerms = true;
    email = "";
    certs = {
      "" = {
        webroot = "/var/www/";
        group = "prosody";

Despite not needing to implement any challenges, as we’ve disabled them in Pebble, we still need to provide webroot configuration. The group attribute is used to set the group permission on the generated certificates and keys, and should be set to the same user your server is running as.

There’s one farther complication: lego does not trust the certificate authority used by the ACME server, and thus it won’t issue requests out of the box. We can configure the lego to trust these certificates by setting the environment of the generated service unit.

{"".serviceConfig.Environment = [


The certificates and keys created by security.acme are stored underneath /var/lib/acme/. This can be provided to your server’s configuration.

  services.prosody = {
    enable = true;
    virtualHosts."" = {
      enabled = true;
      ssl.cert = "/var/lib/acme/";
      ssl.key = "/var/lib/acme/";